Geologic Carbon Dioxide Sequestration

Geologic carbon dioxide (CO2) sequestration is central to multiple states’ climate efforts, including California’s, and has been a key component of the federal energy and environmental policy platform. Deep rock formations are injected with CO2 through the sequestration process for long-term underground storage.

Our experts provided support to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to develop final Underground Injection Control (UIC) Class VI regulations and technical guidance documents for permitting CO2 injection wells associated with geologic sequestration. Subsequently, we have assisted clients with permitting Class VI wells. For more information visit:

With expertise and experience in geologic CO2 sequestration, multi-phase fluid modeling, vadose zone and groundwater monitoring programs, and subsurface injection, GLA can support your projects aimed at reducing CO2 emissions to the atmosphere, while protecting groundwater resources. Risks associated with carbon capture and storage (CCS) can be minimized with proper siting, operation, and monitoring.



Gregory Schnaar, PhD, PG

Principal Environmental Scientist


(301) 755-6270


Schnaar, G., et al., Correction TO: Birkholzer, J.T. et al., 2011. Brine flow up a well caused by pressure perturbation from geologic carbon sequestration: Static and dynamic evaluations. International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control; Vol. 5: 850–861. Int. J. Greenhouse Gas Control (2013),

  1. Schnaar. Federal UIC Regulations for Geologic Sequestration: An Integrated Approach of Site Characterization, Modeling, and Monitoring. American Association of Petroleum Geologists (AAPG) Rocky Mountain Section Annual Convention, June 2010. Durango, Colorado.

Schnaar, G. 2010. Geologic sequestration of carbon dioxide: simulation for regulators. International Energy Agency Greenhouse Gas Research and Development Program, CO2 Geologic Storage Modeling Meeting. February 2010, Salt Lake City, Utah.

Schnaar, G. 2010. Geologic sequestration modeling and federal regulations. Invited speaker at the International Energy Agency (IEA) Greenhouse Gas R&D Program CO2 Geological Storage Modeling Meeting, Salt Lake City, Utah, February 16, 2010.

Schnaar, G. and S. Cullen, 2009. The hydrology of geologic sequestration. Southwest Hydrology, Vol. 8, No. 5, September/October 2009.

  1. Schnaar. Geologic Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide: Models, Codes, and Federal Regulations. TOUGH Symposium, September 2009. Berkeley, California.
  2. Schnaar. Federal Regulations for Geologic Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide. Air & Waste Management Association, Carbon Sequestration 101 (via webinar), February 2009.

Schnaar, G. and N. Sweetland. 2008. Geologic sequestration of carbon dioxide: potential impacts to groundwater resources, the U.S. regulatory framework, and lessons learned from previous injection activities. Groundwater Resources Association of California Climate Change: Implications for California Groundwater Management. August 2008, Sacramento, California.

  1. Schnaar. Standards for Geologic Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide, EPA Proposed Rulemaking, Signed July 15, 2008.
  • Big Sky Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership Annual Meeting, October 2008. Spokane, Washington.
  • EPA Region 8 State UIC Workshop, October 2008. Salt Lake City, Utah.
  • WESTCARB Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership Annual Meeting, October 2008 (via webinar). Anchorage, Alaska.
  • EPA Region 7 UIC Manager’s Meeting, September 2008 (via webinar). Kansas City, MO.
  • Ground Water Protection Council Annual Meeting, September 2008. Session: Underground Injection Control (UIC) and Geosequestration Seminar.
  • Electric Power Research Institute Fall Environment Council Meeting, September 2008. Baltimore, Maryland.
  • Edison Electric Institute Global Climate Change Subcommittee Meeting, July 2008. Savannah, Georgia.